Discovering interlinkages between major cryptocurrencies using high-frequency data: new evidence from COVID-19 pandemic

 Through the use of the VAR-AGARCH model to intra-day information for three digital forms of money (Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin), this investigation analyzes the return and instability overflow between these digital currencies during the pre-COVID-19 period and the COVID-19 period. We likewise gauge the ideal loads, fence proportions, and supporting adequacy during both example periods. We track down that the return overflows fluctuate across the two time frames for the Bitcoin–Ethereum, Bitcoin–Litecoin, and Ethereum–Litecoin sets. Be that as it may, the instability transmissions are observed to be diverse during the two example time frames for the Bitcoin–Ethereum and Bitcoin–Litecoin sets. The consistent contingent connections between's all sets of digital forms of money are seen to be higher during the COVID-19 period contrasted with the pre-COVID-19 period. In view of ideal loads, financial backers are encouraged to diminish their ventures (a) in Bitcoin for the arrangement of Bitcoin/Ethereum and Bitcoin/Litecoin and (b) in Ethereum for the arrangement of Ethereum/Litecoin during the COVID-19 period. All fence proportions are observed to be higher during the COVID-19 period, suggesting a higher supporting expense contrasted with the pre-COVID-19 period. Last, the supporting viability is higher during the COVID-19 period contrasted with the pre-COVID-19 period. In general, these discoveries give valuable data to portfolio directors and policymakers in regards to portfolio expansion, supporting, guaging, and hazard the board. 

Watchwords: Return overflow, Volatility overflow, Cryptocurrencies, Optimal loads, Hedge proportions, Hedging adequacy, COVID-19 


Thecryptocurrency market, another resource class, has drawn in huge consideration from scientists, financial backers, policymakers, and governments as of late (Makarov and Schoar 2020; Nasir et al. 2019). The size of the digital money market is consistently expanding due to (a) the decrease openly trust toward the focal financial framework after the worldwide monetary emergency (Weber 2016), (b) the fourth modern upset and utilization of savvy advancements, (c) its acknowledgment as lawful cash in various nations, and (d) its acknowledgment by huge organizations like Facebook, Microsoft, Shopify, JPMorgan, and Tesla.1 Therefore, comprehend the elements of the cryptographic money market, particularly the interlinkages between the digital currencies during the COVID-19 emergency. On the off chance that, for instance, instability is communicated starting with one cryptographic money then onto the next during the emergency time frame, then, at that point portfolio directors need to change their resource distribution to differentiate hazard, and monetary policymakers need to adjust their strategies to relieve the disease related danger. The time-fluctuating return and unpredictability linkages between various digital forms of money, particularly during an emergency, have significant ramifications for resource designations, choice estimating, and hazard the board (Kou et al. 2014; Caporin and Malik 2020). 

In the connected writing, various examinations have inspected the return/unpredictability overflow between various digital forms of money (Chu et al. 2017; Yi et al. 2018; Koutmos 2018; Baur and Dimpfl 2018; Ji et al. 2019; Katsiampa 2019; Katsiampa et al. 2019a, b; Canh et al. 2019; Beneki et al. 2019; Liu and Serletis 2019). For instance, Yi et al. (2018) investigate the instability connectedness between the 52 cryptographic forms of money and discover an unpredictability transmission from Bitcoin to other digital currencies. A few other digital currencies likewise send solid unpredictability impacts; consequently, Bitcoin isn't the prevailing transmitter of instability to other cryptographic forms of money. Koutmos (2018) inspects the return and unpredictability transmission between the 18 significant digital currencies by utilizing the methodology of Diebold and Yilmaz (2009). Bitcoin is accounted for as the primary transmitter of return and unpredictability impacts to the next digital currencies. Katsiampa (2019) utilizes the corner to corner BEKK model and discovers huge instability co-development among Bitcoin and Ethereum. Ji et al. (2019) study the return and unpredictability transmissions across six significant digital forms of money (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Stellar, and Dash) utilizing the methodology of Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) and find that Bitcoin and Litecoin are the net transmitters of return and instability impacts to the next digital forms of money. Nonetheless, Ethereum, the second-biggest cash, is the net beneficiary of the overflows. Katsiampa et al. (2019a) utilizes the BEKK-MGARCH model to inspect the shock and instability transmission between three driving cryptographic forms of money (Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin) and tracks down a bidirectional shock transmission between the sets of Bitcoin–Ethereum and Bitcoin–Litecoin. Also, bidirectional instability transmissions are seen between the Bitcoin–Ethereum, Bitcoin–Litecoin, and Ethereum–Litecoin sets. Canh et al. (2019) examine instability elements across the seven significant cryptographic forms of money by utilizing the DCC-MGARCH model and discover huge unpredictability transmission between all digital currencies. Liu and Serletis (2019) utilize the GARCH in mean model and discover huge shock and instability transmission between Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin. Beneki et al. (2019) apply the BEKK-GARCH strategy to research the unpredictability transmission among Bitcoin and Ethereum. They track down a unidirectional unpredictability overflow from Ethereum to Bitcoin. In light of the writing referenced above, we saw that none of the examinations inspected the overflows between the cryptographic money market during an emergency period. During different emergencies, many investigations have inspected the return/instability overflow between various resource classes, for instance, value, bond, and item (Chen et al. 2002; Forbes and Rigobon 2002; Diebold and Yilmaz 2009; Aloui et al. 2011; Bekaert et al. 2014), yet none have examined cryptographic forms of money. Henceforth, this investigation will address this writing hole. 

The commitment of our investigation to the writing on digital forms of money is four-overlap. In the first place, this examination explores the return and instability overflow between the cryptographic forms of money during emergency (COVID-19) and pre-emergency (pre-COVID-19) periods. The justification choosing the COVID-19 emergency is that practically all monetary business sectors declined strongly around the world, including stock, security, product, energy, and digital money markets. Here are not many looks at the fall of huge business sectors during COVID-19. The Bitcoin cost was down 19% on 23 March 2020 from its cost on 01 January 2020. In addition, the biggest one-day fall in the cost of Bitcoin was 36% on 13 March 2020. The S&P 500 and DJIA records were down 33% and 36 percent, separately, on 23 March 2020 from their tops on 19 February 2020. The cost for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) unrefined tumbled to a mind boggling $37.63 a barrel on 20 April 2020,2 and the China Manufacturing Purchasing Manager's Index (PMI) was down 33% in February 2020.3 As digital forms of money have additionally been influenced by COVID-19, the discoveries on overflows can give helpful bits of knowledge to crypto financial backers in regards to portfolio and hazard the board during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Second, we gauge the return and instability overflow utilizing the VAR-AGARCH approach, proposed by McAleer et al. (2009). Past examinations have utilized different models/approaches, including the askew BEKK model, BEKK-MGARCH model, DCC-GARCH model, and the methodology of Diebold and Yilmaz. While a few examinations have utilized the VAR-GARCH and VAR-AGARCH model to gauge overflow between various resource classes (Arouri et al. 2012; Jouini 2013; Yousaf and Hassan 2019), yet no past investigation has applied the VAR-AGARCH model to assess return and instability overflow between cryptographic forms of money. The model utilized in this investigation incorporates the consistent restrictive connection (CCC-GARCH) model of Bollerslev (1990) as an extraordinary case. This model is chosen for three reasons: (a) the most generally utilized multivariate models, similar to the BEKK and DCC-GARCH models, frequently experience the ill effects of preposterous boundary assessments and information intermingling issues (Bouri 2015). The VAR-AGARCH model defeats these issues in regards to boundaries and assembly. (b) It fuses unevenness in the model, and (c) this model likewise computes the ideal loads and fence proportions. 

Third, we utilize high recurrence (hourly) information to look at linkages between the digital forms of money, which gives a superior and more profound knowledge to crypto financial backers. In the previously mentioned writing, all investigations utilize every day information to consider linkages between cryptographic forms of money, with the exception of Katsiampa et al. (2019b). At long last, we likewise gauge the ideal loads and support proportions for sets of cryptographic forms of money during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods to give helpful bits of knowledge to portfolio chiefs in regards to resource assignment and productive portfolio the board during emergency and non-emergency periods. 

The remainder of the paper is coordinated as follows: Second area depicts the "System", and third segment gives the "Information and fundamental investigation". Fourth area reports the "Observational discoveries", and fifth segment "Close" the paper. 


In this segment, we first present the VAR-AGARCH demonstrate and afterward portray the technique used to ascertain ideal loads, fence proportions, and supporting viability for the sets of digital forms of money. 


McAleer et al. (2009) proposed the multivariate VAR-AGARCH Model to gauge the return and unpredictability transmission between the distinctive series. The VAR-AGARCH model accepts that positive or negative shocks don't samely affect restrictive change, and it joins deviation in the model. For numerous series, the VAR-AGARCH model has the accompanying determinations for the contingent mean condition: 


in which Rt addresses a 3 × 1 vector of day by day returns of x, y, and z digital forms of money at time t; μ indicates a 3 × 1 vector of constants; ∅=⎛⎝⎜∅11∅21∅

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